Long before the grandeur of Rome or the intellectual prowess of Athens, an advanced civilization thrived in the fertile plains of the Indus Valley. Known for its impressive urban planning, advanced sanitation systems, and a still undeciphered script, the Indus Valley Civilization is one of the three oldest urban civilizations, alongside Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The civilization stretched across what is now Pakistan and western India, from 3300 BC to 1300 BC. Its two largest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, showcased grid-like city planning, fortified administrative centers, and sophisticated water management systems. These features indicate a well-organized society with a strong central authority.
Despite its many achievements, much about the Indus Valley Civilization remains shrouded in mystery. Their script, found inscribed on seals and pottery, remains undeciphered, withholding untold stories of this ancient society.
The decline of the Indus Valley Civilization is also a subject of debate. Climate change, overpopulation, or invasion – the true cause remains speculative. Yet, the legacy of this ancient civilization lives on, reflecting our human capacity for innovation, organization, and resilience.